Soil testing 101

We harvested our first crop of alfalfa/orchard grass hay on May 21. In order to know how much fertilizer to put on the hay ground we have to take soil cores and send them in for analysis. This will tell us what we need to put on for good hay yields for the rest of the season (alfalfa usually yields 3 cuttings a year, sometimes 4 in a good year).



Step one: Obtain a soil probe and sample bags from your local farmer cooperative. Use the soil probe to take a core. Push the probe into the soil by standing on the foot arm.


Step two: Pull the probe back up from the ground. Open the probe, make sure there is at least 8 inch core, and deposit it into the bucket. In a five acre field, take 5-10 cores.


Step three: Mix the cores in the bucket by hand until they are well mixed together. Then, fill the soil test bag to the indicated line and take in for analysis.

Recommendations from the University of Nebraska indicate that alfalfa requires P and K for good yields. A worksheet for calculating hay expenses from Iowa State University might be useful as well. For historical perspective, look at this 1912 publication on growing alfalfa in Iowa.


On a good solar day, we approved an oil pipeline

On a day when my PV array (6 solar panels) produced an above average output (9.84 kWh), our un-elected 3-person panel at the Iowa Utilities Board (Nick Wagner, Marion; Geri Huser, Altoona; and Elizabeth (Libby) Jacobs, West Des Moines) approved the building of the Bakken pipeline through our state. Instead of looking forward to reducing our carbon footprint, they have encouraged further use of petroleum of the dirtiest kind, fracked oil from the Bakken fields in North Dakota, a part of which is home to the Affiliated Tribes of North Dakota (Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara).

In one of the most meaningful statements after the shameful pronouncement, Tribal elder Donald Wanatee, of the Sac and Fox community in Iowa, wearing his war bonnet, made a statement in opposition to building the pipeline. As opposition advocates said afterward, the fight to stop the pipeline is not over yet. Nearly 300 landowners in Iowa have refused the dirty money of Energy Transfer Partners so many of them are expected to fight eminent domain take-over of their farms in court. According to Wally Taylor, an attorney in the case, the legal fight will begin within 30 days at the Polk County District Court.

Is our climate change really due to human activity?

How We Know Global Warming is Real


And on a related topic, what is the carbon footprint of some of our common foods?



Keeping the soil where it belongs…

This morning we woke up to a lot of rain. I mean a lot of water everywhere.


Lots of water after a 5 inch rain. Unusual in December in that the ground is not frozen.

Since nearly all my neighbors rip or chisel their corn stubble and don’t use cover crops, I was curious to see what the landscape looked like. So I went out and took some pictures of full road ditches, water flowing across tilled fields, and Alleman Creek out of its banks.

The rain started yesterday, Friday, December 12 in the evening. By 3 pm yesterday, the 13th, the nearest KCCI Schoolnet weather station had recorded 3.22 inches of rain. At about the same time, I put up my new rain gauge (I had put mine back up Friday night, but it was leaking because on Saturday morning there was nothing in it.) When I checked my new gauge about an hour ago, I had 1.8 inches in it. Therefore we have mostly like had about 5 inches of rain in the last 48 hours. Remember also that our ground is not frozen at all. Normally our ground would have been frozen by now and the rain would have all run off. Since the ground is not frozen, it is soaking in to some extent, but 5 inches is a lot of rain, so the soil cannot take all of the water at once.

There is where our conservation practices come in. We have 4 terraces, 6-8 inches of winter rye cover crop, no-till tillage system, and buffer strips. All of these practices contribute to less soil erosion on a day like today.


The roots of our winter rye cover crop are one reason that our farm retains more rain water, releasing it more slowly into Four Mile Creek watershed.

How much of this sudden runoff would cover crops and no-till prevent? That is a good question. Research shows that those practices will increase water retention on the land, thereby slowing down the runoff from heavy rains.

KCCI is also predicting the following:

“Fourmile Creek is forecast to rise above flood stage midday Monday, topping 12.6 feet or 0.4 feet above flood stage. It’s expected to be in decline by this evening.”

Source: KCCI weather viewed at 10:58 am December 14, 2015.


Rye roots

Today I had a look at the roots of the cereal rye on my farm. We have 6-8 inch growth on our cover crop so it is interesting to look at the growth below the surface as well.


Rye CC after 8 weeks

After harvest the cereal rye cover crop is growing well. We’ve had a long warm fall allowing the rye to continue growing once the corn canopy is gone.

cover crop, conservation

We have about 6-8 inches of rye growth each place I checked on the farm.


By the time planting time rolls around next May, this rye cover should be up higher than the corn stubble. Our intention is to keep the soil covered all winter which helps to prevent erosion, to retain nutrients on the farm rather than see them enter the watershed, and to increase our soil organic matter.

Cover crop has a robust start

At 28 days after aerial seeding, our cereal rye is looking good under the corn canopy. I have not checked all over the farm; this is some of the best coverage I have seen in the places I have checked.


Cereal rye cover crop 28 days on.

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